Any philosophical approach or theory that follows the work of Immanuel Kant and, perhaps, shares his interest in elevating philosophy to the level of science. In ethics, Kantinaism refers to an emphasis on moral duty, the universalizability of moral commands, and the idea that humans, as rational beings, are ends unto themselves, never simply a means to an end.
First drafted in 1997, the international agreement on global climate change to reduce the emissions by signatory nations of six greenhouse gasses to levels below those in 1990. While the U.S. has staunchly refused to ratify the protocol, it nevertheless came into effect in 2005 with Russia’s ratification of it. By 2004 only the U.K. (closely followed by Germany) had met its reduction target while the U.S., Canada, Italy, and Japan have all increased their greenhouse gas emissions.