Environmental philosophy started to develop in the 1970s through public debate on environmental crisis and it engaged philosophers (e.g. G.H. von Wright, Juhani Pietarinen). In the 1990s the first textbooks and scholarly works were published. Leena Vilkka’s textbook Ympäristöetiikka [Environmental Ethics, 1993] might be the first work of its kind. Although there are some dissertations being completed and a number of dissertations currently under preparation, there are no established structures or programs specifically for environmental ethical research. This means that the continuation of environmental ethics depends on tenured teachers, of whom Markku Oksanen (University of Eastern Finland, during 2009-2014 on leave as Academy Research Fellow at University of Turku) and Kari Väyrynen (University of Oulu), both university lecturers in philosophy, have mainly focused on environmental philosophy. It is also notable that many of the tenured philosophy teachers have had a word or two to say about environmental philosophical topics. As of today, there are many temporary funded teachers and researchers in the field such as Elisa Aaltola (University of Eastern Finland), Helena Siipi (University of Turku), Marko Ahteensuu (University of Helsinki) and Ville Lähde (Society for European Philosophy). Outside philosophy departments, there are scholars with combined environmental and philosophical elements in their research; these include Professors Yrjö Haila (environmental policy, University of Tampere), Yrjö Sepänmaa (environmental aesthetics, University of Eastern Finland) and Arto Haapala (aesthetics, University of Helsinki).

ISEE Representative
Markku Oksanen
Email: or
Department of Behavioral Sciences and Philosophy, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)
Schools, Programs, Degrees, Classes
Since the 1990s, classes on environmental and animal ethics/philosophy has been taught in most universities in Finland. These classes, in most cases, have been part of philosophy or environmental science/protection curricula.
Centers, Organizations, Journals
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